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Germany

National Parliament Composition

National Poll Average

This poll average is the result of a smoothing cubic spline fitted to our dataset of all national polls collected in Germany. You can access the complete database of polls at https://europeelects.eu/data/

Government

Head of State (President)Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD-S&D)
Head of Government (Chancellor)Olaf Scholz (SPD-S&D)
Parties in GovernmentSocial Democratic Party of Germany (SPD-S&D)
Alliance ’90/The Greens (Greens/EFA)
Free Democratic Party (FDP-RE)

Parties

Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD)
Social Democratic Party of Germany
Leaders: Lars Klingbeil & Saskia Esken
Orientation: Centre-left (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: S&D (S&D, PES, PA, SOC)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1875-… (Scarrow, 2014, p. 54)

Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU)
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Leader: Friedrich Merz
Orientation: Centre-right (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: EPP (EPP-EP, EPP Party, CDI, IDU, EPP-PACE)
EU Stance: In favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1945-… (bpb, 2021)

Note: Registered in all regions (Bundesländer) but Bavaria; forms group in the national parliament and in PACE with CSU (EPP)

Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (GRÜNE)
Alliance ’90/The Greens
Leader: Ricarda Lang & Omid Nouripour
Orientation: Green politics (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: Greens/EFA (Greens/EFA, EGP, GG, SOC)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1980-… (bpb, 2021)

Freie Demokraten (FDP)
Free Democratic Party
Leader: Christian Lindner
Orientation: Liberal (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: RE (RE, ALDE Party, LI, ALDE-PACE)
EU Stance: In favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1948-… (bpb, 2021)

Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)
Alternative for Germany
Leaders: Tino Chrupalla & Alice Weidel
Orientation: Far-right (Weisskircher, Manès; Doerr, Nicole.)
EP Affiliation: NI (ESNEC/DA)
EU Stance: Opposed to EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 2013-… (bpb, 2021)

Die Linke (Linke)
The Left
Leader: Janine Wissler & Martin Schirdewan
Orientation: Left-wing (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: LEFT (LEFT, EL, UEL)
EU Stance: Neutral towards EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1946-… (Welt)

Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e. V. (CSU)
Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Leader: Markus Söder
Orientation: Centre-right (Poguntke et al., 2020)
EP Affiliation: EPP (EPP-EP, EPP Party, IDU, EPP-PACE)
EU Stance: In favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1945-… (bpb, 2021)

Note: Registered only in the region (Bundesland) of Bavaria; forms group in the national parliament and in PACE with CDU (EPP)

Freie Wähler (FW)
Free Voters
Leader: Hubert Aiwanger
Orientation: Centrist
EP Affiliation: RE (RE, EDP)
EU Stance: In favour of EU integration
Years active: 2009-… (bpb, 2021)

Die PARTEI Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative (Die PARTEI)
Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative
Leader: Martin Sonneborn
Orientation: Left-wing, Satire
EP Affiliation: NI (NI-EP)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration
Years active: 2004-… (bpb, 2021)

Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei (ÖDP)
Ecological Democratic Party
Leader: Charlotte Schmid
Orientation: Green party politics, moderate social conservativism
EP Affiliation: EPP (EPP-EP, WEP)
EU Stance: In favour of EU integration
Years active: 1981-… (bpb, 2021)

Piratenpartei Deutschland (Piraten)
Pirate Party Germany
Leader: Lukas Küffner
Orientation: Pirate politics, social liberalism
EP Affiliation: Greens/EFA (Greens/EFA, PPEU, PPI)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 2006-… (bpb, 2021)

Familien-Partei Deutschlands (FAMILIE)
Family Party of Germany
Leader: Helmut Geuking
Orientation: Centre-right
EP Affiliation: EPP (EPP-EP, ECPM)
EU Stance: Somewhat in favour of EU integration
Years active: 1981-… (bpb, 2022)

Volt Deutschland (Volt)
Volt Germany
Leader: Connor Geiger & Rebekka Müller
Orientation: Eurofederalism, social liberalism
EP Affiliation: Greens/EFA (Greens/EFA, Volt)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration
Years active: 2018-… (bpb, 2021)

Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz (Tierschutzpartei)
Party Human Environment Animal Protection
Leader: Matthias Ebner, Aida Spiegeler Castañeda & Robert Gabel
Orientation: Left-wing, Green politics with focus on animal rights
EP Affiliation: LEFT (Animal Politics EU, PftAIM)
EU Stance: Somewhat in favour of EU integration (Chapel-Hill data)
Years active: 1993-… (bpb, 2021)

Wir Bürger (LKR)
We Citizens
Leader: Jürgen Joost
Orientation: National conservatism
EP Affiliation: ECR (ECR Party)
EU Stance: Somewhat opposed to EU integration
Years active: 2015-… (bpb, 2021) (2015-2016 as Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch (ALFA); 2016-2023 as Liberal-Konservative Reformer (LKR))

Deutsche Zentrumspartei (Zentrum)
German Centre Party
Leader: Christian Otte
Orientation: Conservative
EP Affiliation: NI (NI-EP)
EU Stance: Somewhat in favour of EU integration (Manifesto)
Years active: 1870-… (bpb, 2020)

Südschleswigscher Wählerverband (SSW)
South Schleswig Voters’ Association
Leader: 
Christian Dirschauer
Orientation: 
Designated Danish minority party
EP Affiliation: 
Greens/EFA (EFA)
EU Stance: 
Strongly in favour of EU integration
Years active: 1948-… (bpb, 2021)

Bündnis Deutschland (BD)
Alliance Germany
Leader: Steffen Große
Orientation: National-conservative
EP Affiliation: ECR (ECR Group)
EU Stance: Somewhat opposed to EU integration
Years active: 2022-…

Die Heimat (HEIMAT)
The Homeland
Leader: Frank Franz
Orientation: Far-right
EP Affiliation: NI (APF)
EU Stance: Strongly opposed to EU integration
Years active: 1964-… (bpb, 2021)

Note: the party was active as NPD from 1964 to 2023.

Bündnis Sahra Wagenknecht – Für Vernunft und Gerechtigkeit (BSW)
Alliance Sahra Wagenknecht – For Reason and Justice
Leaders: Sahra Wagenknecht and Amira Mohamed Ali
Orientation: Diverse (Debus, 2024)
EP Affiliation: NI (NI-EPUEL)
EU Stance: Somewhat opposed to EU integration
Years active: 2023-…

Partei des Fortschritts (PdF)
Party of Progress
Leader: Lukas Sieper
Orientation: Liberal (BPB)
EP Affiliation: NI (NI-EP)
EU Stance: Strongly in favour of EU integration
Years active: 2020-…

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